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January 27, 2003
Volume 81, Number 04
CENEAR 81 04 pp. 66-72
ISSN 0009-2347

Recipients are honored for contributions of major significance to chemistry

Following is the fourth set of vignettes of recipients of awards administered by the American Chemical Society for 2003. C&EN will publish the vignettes of the remaining recipients in successive February issues. An article on Edwin J. Vandenberg, 2003 Priestley Medalist, is scheduled to appear in the March 24 issue of C&EN.

Most of the award recipients will be honored at an awards ceremony, which will be held on Tuesday, March 25, in conjunction with the 225th ACS national meeting in New Orleans. However, the Arthur C. Cope Scholar awardees will be honored at the 226th ACS national meeting in New York City, Sept. 7–11.

Claude S. Hudson Award in Carbohydrate Chemistry

Sponsored by National Starch & Chemical Co.

It is tempting to dub Robert J. Linhardt "Mr. Heparin." His career has focused on that compound and its various constituents and has earned Linhardt, professor of chemistry and medicinal chemistry and chemical engineering at the University of Iowa, in Iowa City, this award.

A broad brush would describe his work as the development of analytical methods for separation and structural characterization of complex carbohydrates, as well as determinations in carbohydrate enzymology, synthesis of carbohydrates and analogs, and structure -activity relationships.

But the specifics come down to the exhaustive work he has done on heparin, featured on the website: http://www-
. Although heparin is one of the most widely used drugs, with half a billion doses given annually, little was known of its structure and function when Linhardt came into the field, according to a colleague.

He and his research group invented methods for the separation and sequencing of the polysaccharide components of heparin, including isolation, purification, and characterization of polysaccharide hydrolases and lyases. This has led to the discovery in his group of numerous biological and therapeutic functions for the constitutents of heparin.

He developed methods for characterizing the three-dimensional structures of their target molecules. This work has included collaborations with X-ray crystallographers to illuminate biological interactions important in the metabolism of polysaccharides. His group has determined structures for more than 100 polysaccharides and their oligomeric components. And to obtain the substantial quantities he needed of saccharides and corresponding analogs for thorough evaluation of their therapeutic potential, he developed syntheses for them.

As one colleague puts it, Linhardt's work has led to the now well-established concept that polysaccharides--like their biological macromolecular cousins proteins and nucleic acids--can store information that is necessary for biological function.

But even as he was concentrating on this body of research, says one colleague, he earned a reputation as one of the best teachers at the University of Iowa--a demanding, but popular, teacher in undergraduate courses in chemistry and pharmacy.

A New Jersey native, Linhardt, 49, received a B.S. in chemistry from Marquette University, in Milwaukee, in 1975. He earned an M.S. and a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from Johns Hopkins University in 1977 and 1979, respectively. He did a postdoc at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in biochemical engineering from 1979 to 1982.

In 1982, he joined the faculty at the University of Iowa as an assistant professor of medicinal and natural products chemistry in the College of Pharmacy. He was named full professor in 1990. In 1996, he was appointed F. Wendell Miller Distinguished Professor of Medicinal & Natural Products Chemistry and professor of chemical and biochemical engineering, and in 1999, F. Wendell Miller Distinguished Professor of Chemistry.

Linhardt sits on the editorial boards of a variety of journals, including Analytical Biochemistry and Carbohydrate Research. And he has been the recipient of a number of other awards, including the Horace S. Isbell Award presented by the ACS Division of Carbohydrate Chemistry. His promise showed early on when he was awarded a competitive Johnson & Johnson postdoctoral fellowship for exceptional biomedical research while at MIT.

The award address will be presented before the Division of Carbohydrate Chemistry.--PAT SHORT



E. V. Murphree Award in Industrial & Engineering Chemistry

Sponsored by ExxonMobil Research & Engineering Co. and ExxonMobil Chemical Co.

Leo E. Manzer, DuPont fellow at DuPont's Central Science & Engineering Laboratories, is honored for his research in catalysis and commercial process development.

"During his 29 years with DuPont, Manzer's interests have covered a wide range of catalytic technologies in the areas of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, involving hydrocyanations, oxidations, hydrogenations, and acid-base and fluorocarbon catalysis," remarks W. Nicholas Delgass, professor of chemical engineering at Purdue University.

"His involvement in the commercialization of numerous catalytic processes has resulted in hundreds of millions of dollars of revenue to DuPont," Delgass observes. "Manzer has also spent a lot of his personal time outside DuPont promoting catalysis and industrial chemistry through his involvement with university visiting committees, editorial boards of journals, lecturing, helping to organize and run symposia, and fund-raising."

The most notable achievement of Manzer's career was his founding of the Corporate Catalysis Center at DuPont in 1987 to develop replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).

"When CFCs were scientifically linked to ozone depletion, we were able to direct the full efforts of the center, along with our business R&D folks, to identify safe replacements for CFCs," Manzer tells C&EN. "We identified possible candidates, developed new routes to their manufacture, and eventually commercialized over a half dozen safe alternatives in a record period of time. We reduced commercialization time from the typical seven to 10 years to three to five years.

"A personal driving force was knowing that when we were successful and had commercialized ozone-friendly replacements, the ozone layer would slowly recover," he continues. "Few people can say that their work had an impact on every person on planet Earth.

"What really excites me is when we find a catalyst for a new or existing process and have the opportunity to take it through a multidisciplinary development effort to a commercial reality," he adds. "It is so much fun to see teams of chemists, engineers, and, more recently, biologists all working together to make something happen."

Recently, Manzer was the co-inventor of a new catalyst for the production of phosgene from carbon monoxide and chlorine, which significantly lowers the levels of the ozone-depleting by-product carbon tetrachloride.

Manzer was born in Canada in 1947. After receiving a Ph.D. in chemistry at the University of Western Ontario in 1973, he joined DuPont in Wilmington. During his career, he has held a variety of positions with DuPont in Delaware and Texas, overseeing research programs in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. He directed the Corporate Catalysis Center from 1987 to 1993 and is one of fewer than two dozen company scientists and engineers to hold the title DuPont fellow.

Manzer, who is also an adjunct professor in the departments of chemical engineering, chemistry, and biochemistry at the University of Delaware, is the author of more than 80 publications and 60 patents. He is a member of the editorial boards of several major catalysis journals, including the Journal of Catalysis. Among the numerous awards he has received are the ACS Earle B. Barnes Award for Leadership in Chemical Research Management in 1995; he was named an ACS Hero of Chemistry in 1997.

The award address will be presented before the Division of Industrial & Engineering Chemistry.--MICHAEL FREEMANTLE


ACS Award in Industrial Chemistry

Sponsored by the ACS Division of Business Development & Management

Bruce E. Maryanoff, 55, distinguished research fellow and team leader of vascular research at Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development, is being honored for his prolific and diverse scientific contributions that run the gamut from organic chemistry through bioorganic chemistry and medicinal chemistry.

"His outstanding research achievements, notable professional contributions, fine personal attributes, and numerous services to our community are clearly deserving of this recognition," a colleague says of Maryanoff.

With a Ph.D. from Drexel University, Maryanoff has spent his career researching organic and medicinal chemistry. In this time, he has received many honors and awards, including being named an ACS Hero of Chemistry in 2000 and receiving the Philadelphia Organic Chemists' Club Award, two distinguished alumni awards from Drexel, and numerous company R&D awards, such as the prestigious Johnson Medal. Maryanoff serves on the editorial boards of numerous journals and, among other activities, has organized symposia for ACS meetings and Gordon Research Conferences.

The blending of basic chemical science with applied drug development is what makes Maryanoff a significant person in pharmaceutical research. He is recognized for his exploration of stereochemistry and mechanisms on a variety of organic reactions, especially his identification and quantitation of diastereomeric oxaphosphetane intermediates in the Wittig reaction. This work led to the discovery of "stereochemical drift" between reaction intermediates and alkene products of certain combinations of reactants, as well as to the clarification of the lithium-ion effect on stereochemistry.

In the bioorganic arena, Maryanoff has synthesized and characterized the activity of the protease inhibitor cyclotheonamide A, which is involved in thrombin inhibition. This enabled him and his team to develop novel thrombin inhibitors that explored a little-used region of the enzyme's active site. He has also conducted pioneering research on protease-activated receptors, a novel class of G-protein-coupled receptor in which a peptide ligand is tethered to the extracellular surface of the receptor.

All of this activity enabled several major developments in medicinal chemistry. Maryanoff's major achievement is the discovery and development of the antiepileptic drug topiramate. The compound, which is interesting because of its novel sugar sulfamate structure, has proven to be efficacious in a high proportion of epilepsy patients. It has also received attention as a treatment for other debilitating disorders of the central nervous system, such as migraine, and as an agent to fight obesity.

Other developments in central nervous system chemistry include the discovery of a series of pyrroloisoquinoline antidepressants that inhibit the uptake of neurotransmitters, some of which behave similarly to the drug fluoxetine (Prozac). His team also discovered mazapertine succinate, an atypical antipsychotic compound that entered clinical trials for the treatment of schizophrenia.

Following up on his research on thrombin inhibitors, Maryanoff has developed other agents in this arena. Using a high-efficiency combinatorial library approach, he discovered a class of potent, orally active fibrinogen receptor antagonists to treat thrombosis. His work on structure-based drug design has also led to inhibitors of other serine proteases of therapeutic interest. This work has led to a tryptase inhibitor, now under study in human clinical trials, and novel inhibitors of cathepsin G.

The award address will be presented before the Division of Business Development & Management.--DAVID HANSON 



Peter Debye Award in Physical Chemistry

Sponsored by DuPont

Theoretical chemistry combines a love of mathematics and the ability to make useful contributions to science, says William H. Miller, professor of chemistry at the University of California, Berkeley. And Miller, 61, has contributed extensively to a greater understanding of the quantum theory of chemical dynamics using approaches ranging from semiclassical approximations to rigorous quantum mechanical formulations.

"Perhaps his most unique talent is the ability to combine deep insight into formal theoretical structure with practical computational methodologies that are necessary for application to real chemical systems," a colleague explains.

Miller's interest in theoretical chemistry was sparked while he was an undergraduate at Georgia Institute of Technology and firmly established during his time as a graduate student at Harvard University. "I was captivated by the idea of studying chemical reactions at a completely molecular level," Miller says. Although his research director, E. Bright Wilson, had traditionally had graduate students do primarily experimental research, happily for Miller, Wilson decided in his later years to take on a few students to try some novel theoretical approaches.

Since then, much of Miller's work has focused on molecular collisions and scattering theory. In some of his early papers, he showed how classical trajectory calculations can be used within a quantum mechanical framework to describe inelastic and reactive scattering phenomena. These ideas, a colleague says, "have become part of the essential fabric of the reaction dynamics field." His semiclassical scattering theory work has also been applied in nuclear physics and to the scattering of atoms and molecules from surfaces.

Semiclassical theory underwent a revival of interest in the 1990s within the framework of the "initial value representation," an idea introduced by Miller much earlier. The IVR approach bypasses some aspects of his original version of semiclassical theory and converts it into a problem more amenable to the numerical methods used in classical molecular dynamics simulations of complex systems.

Miller has recently applied the IVR approach to molecular systems with hundreds of degrees of freedom, moving scientists closer to having a practical way of including quantum coherence and tunneling effects into classical molecular dynamics simulations of complex chemical processes.

In applying quantum theory to chemical reaction rate calculations, Miller created a formulation that is rigorously correct yet avoids the necessity of solving complete state-to-state reactive scattering problems. This represents a final chapter in a long quest for a rigorous quantum version of transition-state theory, a colleague says, and the methodology and variations of it are now standard in the field.

After completing his education and postdoctoral work, Miller joined the Berkeley faculty in 1969. He holds the title of Kenneth S. Pitzer Distinguished Professor of Chemistry and is also a staff senior scientist at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. He served as chairman of the university's chemistry department between 1989 and 1993 and was Chancellor's Research Professor from 1998 to 2001.

Miller has received more than 20 awards and honors, including election to the National Academy of Sciences and being named a fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. A prolific speaker and author, he has also taken the time to serve on numerous editorial boards and academic and government committees.

The award address will be presented before the Division of Physical Chemistry.--ANN THAYER



ACS Award in Colloid Chemistry

Sponsored by Procter & Gamble Co.

Clayton J. Radke has a slogan emblazoned at the top of his group website: "where water and oil mix." For almost 30 years, the chemical engineering professor has studied the chemistry in the murky area of surface boundaries.

Radke, 58, will receive this award, given "to recognize and encourage outstanding scientific contributions to colloid chemistry in North America." He is a professor at the University of California, Berkeley.

Radke was fascinated in high school by math, physics, and chemistry--all essential components found in chemical engineering, a discipline that combines all three. Then, in graduate school, surface chemistry caught his eye. "To this day, I continue to be challenged and motivated to understand how molecules behave at interfaces," he says.

Employing a multidisciplinary approach, Radke studies phenomena where phase boundaries dictate system behavior. He uses a combination of molecular thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, transport phenomena, and reaction engineering. His ultimate aim: combining experiment with theory to create a quantitative description of physical phenomena.

His significant contributions to the field include the measurement and characterization of oscillatory forces in thin films of micelles; development of the "thin-film balance" experimental method for measuring isotherms of a single foam film; models for superspreading, enzyme kinetics, protein adsorption, and flow electrification at surfaces; and insights into thermodynamic effects on adsorption. He is particularly proud of research leading to fundamental understanding of thin foam films and their behavior in porous media.

In addition, Radke's group, in collaboration with the Berkeley School of Optometry, is working to design better soft contact lenses for extended wear. Radke has published more than 170 articles in technical journals.

It isn't always an easy task. "Nature seems to give up her secrets grudgingly," he says. "The plain fact, not usually stated, is that research is simply hard work. Discipline, diligence, confidence, unwavering high standards and ethics, a good sense of humor, and a bit of good luck are requisite."

Like many scientists, though, Radke sees the ultimate yardstick of his achievement as a scientist in his legacy of teaching, not just research. The bound theses of his graduate students hold a prominent place in his office bookshelf.

Radke earned a B.S. in chemical engineering from the University of Washington, Seattle, in 1966 and a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from UC Berkeley in 1971. He served a National Science Foundation Overseas Postdoctoral Fellowship at the University of Bristol, in England, from 1971 to 1973 before joining the faculty of Pennsylvania State University, University Park, as a chemical engineering assistant professor. He moved to UC Berkeley in 1976, becoming an associate professor in 1981 and a full professor in 1984.

Radke received the Donald Sterling Noyce Prize for Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching in 1993 and the Distinguished Teaching Award in 1994, both from UC Berkeley. He was also voted Most Appreciated Faculty Member in 1993 and received the Outstanding Faculty Award in 2002 from the school's American Institute of Chemical Engineers student chapter.

The award address will be presented before the Division of Colloid & Surface Chemistry.--AALOK MEHTA



Sponsored by Dow Chemical Co.

"At Merck Research Laboratories (MRL), Paul J. Reider created not only the single most impressive team of chemists, but has inspired them to look beyond practical solutions to chemical scale-up challenges and also find elegant solutions that contribute to basic science," says Scott E. Denmark, professor of chemistry at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Reider will be honored for work done when he was vice president of the process research department at MRL. He now leads chemistry research at Amgen in Thousand Oaks, Calif.

While numerous MRL programs that have prospered under Reider's leadership could be cited in this vignette, three most easily demonstrate his excellence in research management and in bringing complex new science to full fruition at the manufacturing scale. These include the programs on indinavir, a protease inhibitor for treatment of AIDS; etoricoxib, the company's newest COX-II candidate; and efavirenz, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, also for treatment of AIDS.

Reider's role in the indinavir (Crixivan) program has been the most complex of the three, and his impact there has been the most profound. On the scientific side, Reider was charged with leading the chemistry team that had to develop a practical and efficient synthesis of one of the most complex totally synthetic drug products on the market. Managerially, he was one of the principal driving forces behind the successful implementation of the resulting process, first at the pilot scale and finally at the manufacturing scale. Since there were no other protease inhibitors available at the time, all of this work had to be done under the scrutiny of the media and AIDS activists.

Indinavir has five chiral centers and is a complex target even for gram-scale synthesis. Under Reider's leadership, a process was rapidly developed starting with readily available indene, which was converted to (1S, 2R)-cis-aminoindanol in an elegant organometallic process, followed by a Ritter reaction. This indanol, with two of the five indinavir chiral centers, was used to translate its stereochemistry along the indinavir backbone as each subsequent bond was constructed. This extraordinary synthesis worked equally well for preparing metric tons of the drug as it did for preparing the first clinical supplies.

During the development program, AIDS activists questioned Merck's views on its ability to supply the drug for the rapidly evolving clinical program and maintain a consistent supply of the drug for compassionate use by those with AIDS. Under Reider's leadership, a Merck process team met with the activists and their scientific consultants to review in detail the chemical, process engineering, and production issues related to the drug. The result of this meeting was that the activists recognized that Merck, and particularly Reider's group, was doing everything possible to ensure the availability of as much of the drug as possible.

Throughout the pilot- plant development and factory implementation, Reider's commitment to and considerable influence on the program proved a major factor in the final pricing of Crixivan. The synthesis combined with superb engineering development meant that the drug was affordable by many AIDS patients despite its extraordinarily high dose of 2.4 g per day.

Reider, 51, received an A.B. in psychology with a minor in chemistry from Washington Square College, New York City, in 1972. In 1978, he received a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from the University of Vermont and followed that in 1980 with an National Institutes of Health postdoctoral fellowship at Colorado State University. He joined Merck in 1980 as a research chemist and rose to the level of vice president in 1995.

The award address will be presented before the Division of Organic Chemistry.--LINDA RABER




From the newsrooms of well-respected newspapers, science magazines, and public television stations to wildlife refuges and laboratories in East Africa and Woods Hole, Mass., and to the hallowed halls of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boyce Rensberger is a renaissance man of science journalism.

Currently, Rensberger, 60, is director of the Knight Science Journalism Fellowships program at MIT and codirector of the summer Science Journalism Program at Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory. Equipped with a B.S. in zoology and journalism from the University of Miami (1964) and an M.S. in journalism and mental health communications from Syracuse University (1966), Rensberger has done more than carve a niche for himself in one area of science; he has shared his vast knowledge on a wealth of subjects not only with reading audiences, but also with young and midcareer journalists.

According to Curt Suplee, a former colleague of Rensberger's and a previous Grady-Stack awardee: "Rensberger's work has always been distinctive for two qualities. First, he has relentlessly refused to 'dumb down' the subject matter, as many writers do. It is easy to please editors and readers both by invoking phrases such as 'by a complex process' or 'through a series of chemical reactions' to bypass the obligation to explain things completely," he says. "Yet this is the greatest challenge of writing about chemistry. By contrast, to explain in detail how chemists solved a difficult problem or overcame a crucial lack of understanding, and then to attempt to make clear the bonds, energy transfers, and reactions involved, is to take on the hardest job of communicating science to the general public. Rensberger has never shrunk from that responsibility."

For example, in explaining how muscles work, Rensberger writes: "When a muscle contracts, each myosin head reaches out and binds chemically to the nearest actin filament. Then the head bends so as to pull on the actin. This makes the two filaments slide past one another a short distance. Then the myosin head releases its grip, bends back to reach ahead and grab again.

"You can visualize this process by thinking of your arm and hand as a myosin molecule and a rope (lying parallel to your arm) as the actin filament."

"I think people enjoy being fascinated as much as they enjoy being amused," Rensberger says. "An important step toward creating a sense of fascination is that people learn new information. Thus, science writing that entertains people by fascinating them also educates them."

Rensberger is receiving this award for work done at the Washington Post--first as science writer and editor from 1984 to 1994 and then as creator and editor of the monthly supplement Horizon: The Learning Section, from 1994 to 1998. But his body of work previously is equally impressive. After graduate school, Rensberger was a science writer with the Detroit Free Press until 1971, when he left to write for the New York Times. In addition, he was head writer for the children's public television series "3-2-1 Contact" and senior editor of Science 1981–84, published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).

With knowledge unable to be contained in articles, Rensberger has written four books, including "How the World Works: A Guide to Science's Greatest Discoveries" (1986) and, most recently, "Life Itself: Exploring the Realm of the Living Cell" (1997).

Rensberger twice won AAAS's top award for science journalism. He also won an Alicia Patterson Fellowship, which took him to East Africa during 1973–74 to study human evolution and wildlife conservation. ?The award address was presented at the National Press Club, Washington, D.C., on Nov. 15, 2002.--ARLENE GOLDBERG-GIST




As an undergraduate at Purdue University, Lloyd M. Robeson really liked both chemistry and math, a combination that led him to study chemical engineering, in which he received a B.S. in 1964 and a Ph.D. in 1967 from the University of Maryland.

Even at his first job at Union Carbide, Robeson was enthused by commercial applications. According to one colleague, "He has always firmly espoused the view that the true worth of an idea is in its practical application, and the proper measure of this worth is the successful manufacturing and marketing of a product." Many products have been commercialized as a result of Robeson's work, but Robeson says he is proudest of having developed orthopedic splint material that is used for temporary and permanent casts for broken limbs, burn victims, and many other medical problems. This 27-year-old product is now the industry standard, Robeson says, and "it's made the job worthwhile."

Robeson, 59, is being recognized with this award for significant achievements in the areas of polymer blends, block copolymers, membranes, adhesives, engineering thermoplastics, and thermosets. Although he is the author or coauthor of 91 U.S. patents, he has also contributed materially to a scientific understanding of the behavior of polymers.

Robeson has always worked in the lab. "True experimentalists do not work at a computer; they do hands-on labwork," he says. He is currently involved in "long-range research defining polymeric materials for emerging applications. If you can predict what's going to happen, it's not long-range research," he maintains.

His research encompasses a long list of topics: diffusion and permeability characteristics, mechanical and thermal properties, resistance to environmental factors, flammability characteristics, dielectric properties, and processing attributes. He has investigated structures from polyelectrolytes to engineering polymers and blends of every conceivable composition. He has blended, impact-modified, filled, and reaction-modified a host of polymer materials. What sets him apart is that he has also provided a fundamental understanding of these property-structure relationships.

"There is no doubt that Lloyd Robeson is currently the foremost industrial leader in the areas of polymer blends and gas permeation," a colleague notes, and another adds: "He is considered to be the major industrial contributor to the field of polymer blends in the U.S."

Robeson recently served as the chairman of the Materials Technology Committee for Technology Vision 2020, which is a strategic plan to keep the U.S. chemical industry competitive in the global environment. The committee was sponsored by ACS, the American Chemistry Council, the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, the Council for Chemical Research, and the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturers Association and funded by the Department of Energy.

Robeson is the author or coauthor of more than 90 publications, including a major book in his field, "Polymer-Polymer Miscibility," which, after 20 years, is still a primary reference on the subject. In 2001, he was elected a member of the National Academy of Engineering. He is currently a principal research associate at Air Products & Chemicals.

The award address will be presented before the Division of Polymer Chemistry.--JANET DODD


Sponsored by Corporation Associates

Few scientists are responsible for creating a single product that brings their employers more than $7.5 billion in annual sales. But Bruce D. Roth, 48, can make that claim as the synthetic chemist and sole inventor behind the compound [R-(R*,R*)]-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-b,d-dihydroxy-5-(1-methylethyl-3-phenyl-4-[(phenylamino)carbonyl]-1H-pyrrole-1-heptanoic acid.

In short, atorvastatin--the lactone form, also known as the cholesterol-lowering drug Lipitor--has become the world's fastest growing and top-selling pharmaceutical since its launch in 1997. Roth, now vice president for chemistry at Pfizer Global Research & Development, synthesized the drug in 1985 while a senior scientist at Warner-Lambert, which was acquired by Pfizer in 2001.

"Roth's invention of atorvastatin is an important medical advance because it improves the treatment of high blood cholesterol levels and will soon be used by tens of millions of people," a colleague says. "If studies turn out as expected, millions of years will be added to the total life expectancy of people in Western societies in which cholesterol is a major problem."

Roth led a research group that was investigating several parallel approaches to lipid regulation. Among these was the pursuit of an effective inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG CoA), a crucial enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. Roth conceived of a pharmacophore model and began working on atorvastatin.

Although he first synthesized a series of compounds, Roth recognized that only one stereoisomer was active and focused on making it. The resultant compound, its lactone form, and salts were extremely potent and preferentially inhibited HMG CoA reductase in the liver where one-third of the body's cholesterol is made.

Unlike all previously successful HMG CoA reductase inhibitors, which are chiral by virtue of being produced by microorganisms, atorvastatin is not a natural product. Instead, points outs Nobel Laureate Michael S. Brown, professor at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, "it is a pure invention of Bruce Roth and a tribute to his skill as a synthetic chemist."

The initial "elegant chemistry" of Roth's synthetic route has been modified to afford commercially viable production, another colleague adds. And, when tested in humans, Lipitor produced the most profound cholesterol lowering yet observed, along with a beneficial safety profile. Following its commercial launch, Lipitor quickly became the most widely prescribed cholesterol-lowering drug.

Roth has also been recognized by the New York Intellectual Property Law Association when he won its inventor of the year award in 1999. He started his career as a research chemist at Warner-Lambert in 1982 and then received a series of promotions to his current position. Roth also serves as an adjunct associate professor in the department of medicinal chemistry at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Roth received a B.S. in chemistry from St. Joseph's College in Philadelphia. He then moved to Iowa State University and completed a Ph.D. in organic chemistry, followed by a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Rochester.

The award address will be presented before the Division of Medicinal Chemistry.--ANN THAYER




If there's one area of chemistry that requires heavy instrumental artillery, it's nuclear chemistry. To probe an atom's guts, scientists need accelerators to split or fuse nuclei and blast them into new energy states. And a whole science of sophisticated detector systems arose from the need to examine the complex trails of gamma rays spit out by rapidly spinning and highly excited (hot) nuclei.

Over the past several decades, chemistry professor Demetrios G. Sarantites, at Washington University, in St. Louis, has invented some of the most important such detectors used by nuclear scientists. And thanks to these instruments, not only has Sarantites himself been able to gain major insights into nuclear structures and processes, but hosts of other scientists have been able to make important discoveries as well.

Sarantites was born in 1933 in Athens, Greece. He received a B.S. in chemical engineering and an M.S. in chemistry from the Technical University of Athens in 1956. After a three-year service at the Greek Naval Academy, he went to Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he was awarded a Ph.D. in nuclear and inorganic chemistry in 1963.

After postdoc positions at MIT and at Washington University, in 1964, Sarantites became an assistant professor at Washington University, where he has been ever since. Now a full professor, he has also held visiting professorships at the Nobel Institute of Physics in Stockholm; Niels Bohr Institute in Roskilde, Denmark; and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, Calif.

During the 1960s and '70s, Sarantites pioneered the use of germanium detectors for probing the nuclear structure of medium-sized atoms. In the early 1980s, he was responsible for the creation of the spin spectrometer, a groundbreaking spherical detector array installed at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The spin spectrometer was the first to examine in great detail the gamma ray decay of excited nuclei.

Sarantites soon developed a spherical detector designed to measure the spectra of hydrogen and helium isotopes, known as the Dwarf Ball/Wall. This detector, used in combination with the spin spectrometer, gave scientists the ability to simultaneously monitor particles and gamma rays.

He also collaborated on the powerful, sophisticated Gammasphere detector system, an international project system at LBNL. In the 1990s, Sarantites developed the Microball, another small spherical detector that fit inside the Gammasphere. The two devices combined made for an extremely powerful, selective system. And with it, Sarantites was able to confirm the existence of the then-theorized "island of superdeformation" in rapidly spinning nuclei of around mass 80 and to study them extensively. He was also instrumental in the discovery and study of superdeformation in nuclei of mass 60, and very recently in mass 40.

Sarantites' latest device is Hercules, a new detector system used with the Gammasphere that can identify trans-lead and trans-actinide fusion products--a task made very difficult by their quick decay into fission products.

Throughout his illustrious 40-year career, Sarantites has also published over 250 papers and presented numerous lectures.

The award address will be presented before the Division of Nuclear Chemistry & Technology.--ELIZABETH WILSON



Sponsored by IBM Corp.

Few chemists are as prolific, or as oft-cited, as Henry F. (Fritz) Schaefer III. His unceasing use of computational methods to verify, predict, and even overturn experimental results, as well as his role in helping to make computational chemistry the powerful tool it is today, has resulted in more than 900 papers. He was the third most highly cited chemist in the world for the period 1984 to 1991, and the sixth most highly cited chemist in the world for the period 1981 to 1997.

For this enormous body of work and its importance to chemists both theoretical and experimental, Schaefer--who is the Graham Perdue Professor of chemistry at the University of Georgia, Athens, and director of the Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry--will receive this award.

Schaefer was born in Grand Rapids, Mich., in 1944. He received a B.A. in chemical physics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1966 and a Ph.D. in chemical physics from Stanford University in 1969.

He immediately landed an assistant professorship at the University of California, Berkeley, and stayed there until 1987. During 1979–80, he also held a professorship at the University of Texas, Austin, and was director of the Institute for Theoretical Chemistry there. After his stint at Berkeley, he went to the University of Georgia, where he has been ever since.

Schaefer's early work in the 1970s included some of the first efforts to tackle the difficult and substantial problem of electron correlation--accounting for the energy expended by electrons avoiding each other--in quantum chemical computations. Schaefer's other contributions to quantum chemical methodology include developing ways to deal with such abstruse but important problems as evaluating gradients and force constant matrices.

But his primary contribution to the field, his colleagues say, has been in applying computational predictions to intractable and controversial chemical problems, such as the elimination of hydrogen from formaldehyde to make carbon monoxide, the possibility of silicon-silicon triple bonds, high-energy forms of nitrogen, and highly strained hydrocarbons.

He has held numerous visiting professorships and various positions, including chair of the ACS Division of Physical Chemistry.

He has served on the editorial boards of many journals, including the Journal of Chemical Physics and Chemical Physics Letters, and has been the president of the World Association of Theoretically Oriented Chemists since 1996.

This is Schaefer's third ACS award: He won the ACS Award in Pure Chemistry in 1979 and the Leo Hendrik Baekeland Award in 1983. He has a number of honorary doctorates and other awards, including the Centenary Medal from the Royal Society of Chemistry (1992) and the Lamar Dodd Award from the University of Georgia (1995).

The award address will be presented before the Division of Physical Chemistry.--ELIZABETH WILSON


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