Cooling: After the wort is boiled, brewers remove the solids from the liquid. The liquid is cooled to the optimal fermenting temperature for yeast. Ale strains ferment best around room temperature (20 °C); lager strains function better at lower temperatures (around 10 °C).
Fermenting: The fermentation tank is where the magic happens: yeast meet the wort and turn the sugary stock into alcoholic beer. Once the fermentation is complete, yeast aggregate and settle out of the liquid. Brewers can then pull beer off the tank’s cylindrical top and reclaim yeast from the tank’s conical bottom to use in the next fermentation.
Fermenting: Yeast can also produce flavor and aroma compounds, more than 500 of them. Here are some of the more common esters.
Fermenting: Yeast cells consume oxygen, nitrogen, and sugars. Glucose is their main food source, but yeast can also digest maltose and maltotriose. Additionally, yeast gobble up and metabolize the fatty acids from hops as well.
Mashing: Brewers need sugar to feed the yeast. This sugar comes from malted grains—grains that have started germinating and producing starch-processing enzymes. Brewers mill the grains and toss them into warm water, where enzymes break the grains’ starches down into sugars. This process is called mashing.
Fermenting: Different strains handle the nutrients differently, but all brewer’s yeast have genes that encode enzymes to convert sugar into ethanol and CO2.
Finishing/Bottling: Brewers can next filter their beer and/or store it in resting tanks to age and fully develop its flavors, but the liquid that leaves the fermentation tank is drinkable beer.
There are as many ways to make beer as there are breweries, but every brewer follows the same basic process. Here’s how beer makers turn amber waves of grain into amber ales, IPAs, and other beer styles. Click the Barley followed by the water - then fire up the brewery!
Lautering: The lauter tun separates grain husks from sugary liquid. This liquid is next fed to a brew kettle.
Boiling: Brewers boil the liquid, called wort, inside the brew kettle, along with hops and other flavorful ingredients. Hops bestow a bitterness to beer, along with fatty acids that yeast can metabolize to create more flavors and aromas during fermentation